Some types of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) may develop from specific causes. This is called secondary AML (sAML). Therapy-related AML (t-AML) and AML with myelodysplasia-related changes (AML-MRC) are 2 different types of sAML. Roughly one-third of all AML cases are diagnosed as either t-AML or AML-MRC.
Therapy-related AML (t-AML)
t-AML may occur in those who have previously been treated for cancer with chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Depending on the type of therapy previously received, t-AML can occur anytime from 2 to 10 years after treatment for cancer.
AML with myelodysplasia-related changes (AML-MRC)
AML-MRC may develop in those who have previously had certain types of blood disorders, have a specific genetic mutation, or have certain abnormal blood cells. Specific tests, including genetic tests, will help your doctor identify whether or not your AML is AML-MRC.
Watch the video below to learn more about sAML subtypes t-AML and AML-MRC.
t-AML and AML-MRC are usually treated with chemotherapy. VYXEOS (vix-e-ose) is an advancement in chemotherapy that specifically treats adults who have been newly diagnosed with t-AML or AML-MRC. VYXEOS is a combination of 2 chemotherapies (daunorubicin and cytarabine) in tiny, bubble-like carriers called liposomes.
VYXEOS is a prescription intravenous (IV) chemotherapy used for the treatment of adults with certain types of newly-diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML). These types include patients whose AML is related to previously received chemotherapy or radiation therapy (also called therapy-related AML, t-AML) and AML in patients who previously had certain types of blood disorders, have a specific genetic mutation, or have certain abnormal blood cells (also called AML with myelodysplasia-related changes, AML-MRC).
IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION
WARNING: VYXEOS has different dosage recommendations from other medications that contain daunorubicin and/or cytarabine. Do not substitute VYXEOS for other daunorubicin and/or cytarabine-containing products.
VYXEOS should not be given to patients who have a history of serious allergic reaction to daunorubicin, cytarabine, or any of its ingredients.
VYXEOS can cause a severe decrease in blood cells (red and white blood cells and cells that prevent bleeding, called platelets) which can result in serious infection or bleeding and possibly lead to death. Your doctor will monitor your blood counts during treatment with VYXEOS. Patients should tell the doctor about new onset fever or symptoms of infection or if they notice signs of bruising or bleeding.
VYXEOS can cause heart-related side effects. Tell your doctor about any history of heart disease, radiation to the chest, or previous chemotherapy. Inform your doctor if you develop symptoms of heart failure such as:
shortness of breath or trouble breathing
swelling or fluid retention, especially in the feet, ankles, or legs
VYXEOS may cause allergic reactions including anaphylaxis. Seek immediate medical attention if you develop signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis such as:
skin rash or hives
swelling of the face, lips, mouth, or tongue
VYXEOS contains copper and may cause copper overload in patients with Wilson’s disease or other copper-processing disorders.
VYXEOS can damage the skin if it leaks out of the vein. Tell your doctor right away if you experience symptoms of burning, stinging, or blisters and skin sores at the injection site.
VYXEOS can harm your unborn baby. Inform your doctor if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or nursing. Do not breastfeed while receiving VYXEOS. Females and males of reproductive potential should use effective contraception during treatment and for 6 months following the last dose of VYXEOS.
The most common side effects were bleeding events, fever, rash, swelling, nausea, sores in the mouth or throat, diarrhea, constipation, muscle pain, tiredness, stomach pain, difficulty breathing, headache, cough, decreased appetite, irregular heartbeat, pneumonia, blood infection, chills, sleep disorders, and vomiting.
Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit www.fda.gov/medwatch or call 1-800-FDA-1088. You may also report side effects to Jazz Pharmaceuticals at 1-800-520-5568.